Wherever you are in the world, you most likely have a specific area in your town or city that serves as its geographical or commercial core. There is a town square or the main street where public life flourishes and people gather for shopping and retail, transportation, or public communication. Government buildings, museums, landmarks, and other shared spaces are also found in these designated places.
In ancient Greek cities, these spots are called the agora, the meeting grounds of free-born citizens and the center of their daily lives. In this article, let’s know more about agoras and how many of the concepts we have today stem from them.
While the word “agora” now popularly translates to “marketplace” in Greek today, the term first connoted being an “open assembly place.” Ancient Greek cities have an agora where people would gather together to hear important civic announcements and government proclamations, discuss politics, watch public debates, and assemble military campaigns.
Citizens took pride in attending these common activities, treating it not as a mere obligation but an honor or privilege, detesting ones who choose to veer away from these public activities.
During the zenith of Athenian prowess and culture, the agora also became the center of daily life, surrounded by law courts, baths, stoas (public halls with colonnades), temples, libraries, and a bustling marketplace.
Merchants, craftsmen, and artisans convened in the agora, established their shops and sold their services, products, and wares. These traders came from distant regions and countrysides, traveling to the agora to offer their goods to wealthy consumers.
Nearly everything available then was sold, from clothing, shoes, jewelry, cookware, pastries, sweets, exotic food, and even slaves. The marketplace denoted order and civilization, having a developed system where a specific area was assigned for each product and service type.
The agora also became an integral part of religious traditions, mainly the Panathenaic procession, the apex of the Panathenaic Festival celebrated to honor the city’s goddess, Athena. The Panathenaic Way, the sacred road used in the event, wounds its way from Dipylon, traveling through the agora, Propylaia, and Acropolis, before ending in Athena’s altar.
Various temples also stood at the agora include ones dedicated to Ares, Apollo, and Zeus. The Temple of Hephaestus, situated at the northwest side of the Agora of Athens, is still visible today and is one of the well-preserved classical temples in Greece.
Another huge legacy of the agora is that it became the central place for people to exchange ideas. Many renowned philosophers drenched their audience with different concepts and thoughts in the agora.
One of them was Socrates, who was always present at the Agora and can be found on spots where he can meet the most people. He interrogated market-goers with his quest for knowledge, treating them as “experts” and questioning them how they understand life but often making them utterly foolish. Aristotle and Plato, two other brilliant minds, displayed their wisdom, discussed their unique ideas, and instructed pupils in the agora. Many of their teachings changed and molded Western philosophy and brought notable contributions to science, physics, and zoology theories.
Yet, agora’s glorious mark perhaps is that it became the birthplace of democracy, where the people ruled the government. The regular Athenians were given the power to vote on nearly everything. Every issue went through a democratic process through a forum before being voted on. Laws created then were announced and posted in the agora for everyone to know. No one was above the law, while everyone can partake in the legal process. Even the senate and law courts were situated in the agora, proving the open, free system of Athenian life, which became the foundation of many modern governance structures.